Behavioral and Cognitive Effects of Microwave Exposure

http://grouper.ieee.org/groups/scc28/sc4/Behavioral%20effects.pdf

Behavioral and Cognitive Effects
of Microwave Exposure

John A. D’Andrea,1* Eleanor R. Adair,2 and John O. de Lorge3
1Chief Scientist, Naval HealthResearch Center Detachment, Brooks City-Base,Texas
2Air Force Senior Scientist Emeritus, Hamden, Connecticut
3Bioelectromagnetics Consultant, Cantonment, Florida
This paper presents an overview of the recent behavioral literature concerning microwave exposure and discusses behavioral effects that have supported past exposure standards. Other effects, which are based on lower levels of exposure, are discussed as well, relative to setting exposure standards. The paper begins with a brief discussion of the ways in which behavioral end points are investigated in the
laboratory, together with some of the methodological considerations pertinent to such studies when radio frequency (RF) exposure is involved. It has been pointed out by several sources that exposure to RF radiation can lead to changes in the behavior of humans and laboratory animals that can range from the perceptions of warmth and sound to lethal body temperatures. Behavior of laboratory animals can be perturbed and, under certain other conditions, animals will escape and subsequently avoid RF fields; but they will also work to obtain a burst of RF energy when they are cold. Reports of change of cognitive function (memory and learning) in humans and laboratory animals are in the scientific literature. Mostly, these are thermally mediated effects, but other low level effects are not so easily
explained by thermal mechanisms. The phenomenon of behavioral disruption by microwave exposure, an operationally defined rate decrease (or rate increase), has served as the basis for human exposure guidelines since the early 1980s and still appears to be a very sensitive RF bioeffect. Nearly all evidence relates this phenomenon to the generation of heat in the tissues and reinforces the conclusion
that behavioral changes observed in RF exposed animals are thermally mediated. Such behavioral alteration has been demonstrated in a variety of animal species and under several different conditions of RF exposure. Thermally based effects can clearly be hazardous to the organism and continue to be the best predictor of hazard for homosapiens. Nevertheless, similar research with man has not been
conducted.Although some studieson human perception of RFexist, these should be expanded to include a variety of RF parameters. Bioelectromagnetics Supplement 6:S39–S62, 2003.
Published 2003Wiley-Liss, Inc.
{
Key words: microwave; radiofrequency radiation; behavior; review
I. ABSTRACT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . S39
II. INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . S40
A. Behavioral End Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . S41
B. Descriptions of Behavior and Methodologies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . S41
1. Innate behaviors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . S41
2. Learned behaviors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . S41
III. IMPACT OF RF FIELD CHARACTERISTICS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . S42
IV. LABORATORY INVESTIGATIONS IN ANIMALS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . S43
Published 2003Wiley-Liss, Inc.
{This article is a US government work, and, as such, is
in the public domain in the United States of America.
Sponsored by awards from Office of Naval Research to the first
author (Work Unit Nos.: 601153N.MRO4508.518-60285 and
601153N.M4023.60182). The views expressed in this article are
those of the authors and do not reflect the official policy of the
Navy Department, Department of Defense, or the U.S. Government
unless so designated by other documentation.
*Correspondence to: John A. D’Andrea, Ph.D., Officer Incharge,
Naval Health Research Center Detachment, 8315 Navy Road,
Brooks City-Base, Texas.
E-mail: john.dandrea@navy.brooks.af.mil
——————
Received for review 15 September 2002; Final revision received
9 July 2003
DOI 10.1002/bem.10169
Published online inWiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com).
A. Thermal Tolerance and Lethality. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . S43
B. Behavioral Performance Disruption (Work Stoppage). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . S43
C. High Peak Power. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . S46
D. Aversive and Escape Behavior . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . S47
E. Electrical Hot Spots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . S47
V. THERMOREGULATORY BEHAVIOR AND THERMAL COMFORT. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . S49
A. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . S49
B. Animal Data: Lizards and Rodents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . S49
C. Studies of Non-human Primates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . S49
1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . S49
2. Basic phenomenon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . S49
3. Role of the hypothalamus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . S50
4. Chronic exposure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . S50
5. Partial-body exposure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . S50
6. Exposure at the resonant frequency. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . S50
7. Surface vs. deep heating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . S51
8. Thermal comfort . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . S51
9. RF fields as positive reinforcement for behavior. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . S52
VI. PSYCHOACTIVE DRUG/MICROWAVE INTERACTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . S53
VII. MICROWAVE EFFECTS ON COGNITIVE BEHAVIOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . S54
A. Effects on Cognitive Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . S54
1. Animal studies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . S54
2. Human studies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . S56
VIII. SUMMARY. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . S57
IX. RESEARCH NEEDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . S58
X. REFERENCES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . S59
INTRODUCTION
Exposure to radio frequency (RF) fields can lead
to changes in the behavior of humans and laboratory
animals and to other effects. These effects range from
the perceptions of warmth and sound to high body
temperatures that can result in grand mal seizures or
death.
Between these two extremes, the behavior of
laboratory animals can be either perturbed or stopped
dead in its tracks. Under certain other conditions,
animals will escape and subsequently avoid RF fields,
but they also will work to obtain a burst of RF energy
when they are cold.

continued at http://grouper.ieee.org/groups/scc28/sc4/Behavioral%20effects.pdf

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